[运维相关] Linux中搭建Maven私服

shipeng22022 · 发布于 2019-11-06 09:13 · 347 次阅读
1
linux安装maven
先解压maven的压缩包apache-maven-3.5.4-bin.tar.gz   命令: tar -zavf pache-maven-3.5.4-bin.tar.gz
然后编辑linux的环境变量属性:vim etc/profile
在末尾添加如下代码
export M2_HOME=/home/maven/apache-maven-3.5.4   //你maven的解压目录
export path=$M2_HOME/bin:

配置中央仓库的镜像(因为国内访问阿里的网站快一些,换成了阿里的)
vim /home/maven/apache-maven-3.5.4/conf/settings.xml
在<mirrors>标签下加入仓库配置的信息
<mirror>
  <id>alimaven</id>
  <name>aliyun maven</name>
  <url>http://maven.aliyun.com/nexus/content/groups/public/</url>
  <mirrorOf>central</mirrorOf>
</mirror>
在Linux搭建Nexus私服
ftp把nexus-2.14.0-01-bundle.tar.gz压缩包上传到Linux中
tar -zxvf nexus-2.14.0-01-bundle.tar.gz解压出现两个文件夹
  nexus-2.14.0-01 主要用到这个文件夹
  sonatype-work 保存所有配置文件的信息(不用动)
启动nexus
  进入 cd /home/nexus/nexus-2.14.0-01/bin/nexus  
  ./nexus start
启动后 默认端口8081可以去访问 http://192.168.1.105:8081/nexus/
将所有proxy中的下载配置打开(右键 proxy 选择Repair index)
Public Repositories 对应的地址 http://192.168.1.105:8081/nexus/content/groups/public/  我们的仓库地址
最后: 在setting.xml配置私服的引用(是我们开发环境 maven的setting.xml文件)
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<!--
Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
distributed with this work for additional information
regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
"License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at

    http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
software distributed under the License is distributed on an
"AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
specific language governing permissions and limitations
under the License.
-->

<!--
| This is the configuration file for Maven. It can be specified at two levels:
|
|  1. User Level. This settings.xml file provides configuration for a single user,
|                 and is normally provided in ${user.home}/.m2/settings.xml.
|
|                 NOTE: This location can be overridden with the CLI option:
|
|                 -s /path/to/user/settings.xml
|
|  2. Global Level. This settings.xml file provides configuration for all Maven
|                 users on a machine (assuming they're all using the same Maven
|                 installation). It's normally provided in
|                 ${maven.conf}/settings.xml.
|
|                 NOTE: This location can be overridden with the CLI option:
|
|                 -gs /path/to/global/settings.xml
|
| The sections in this sample file are intended to give you a running start at
| getting the most out of your Maven installation. Where appropriate, the default
| values (values used when the setting is not specified) are provided.
|
|-->
<settings xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/SETTINGS/1.0.0"
          xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/SETTINGS/1.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/settings-1.0.0.xsd">
  <!-- localRepository
   | The path to the local repository maven will use to store artifacts.
   |
   | Default: ${user.home}/.m2/repository
  <localRepository>/path/to/local/repo</localRepository>
  -->

  <!-- interactiveMode
   | This will determine whether maven prompts you when it needs input. If set to false,
   | maven will use a sensible default value, perhaps based on some other setting, for
   | the parameter in question.
   |
   | Default: true
  <interactiveMode>true</interactiveMode>
  -->

  <!-- offline
   | Determines whether maven should attempt to connect to the network when executing a build.
   | This will have an effect on artifact downloads, artifact deployment, and others.
   |
   | Default: false
  <offline>false</offline>
  -->

  <!-- pluginGroups
   | This is a list of additional group identifiers that will be searched when resolving plugins by their prefix, i.e.
   | when invoking a command line like "mvn prefix:goal". Maven will automatically add the group identifiers
   | "org.apache.maven.plugins" and "org.codehaus.mojo" if these are not already contained in the list.
   |-->
  <pluginGroups>
    <!-- pluginGroup
     | Specifies a further group identifier to use for plugin lookup.
    <pluginGroup>com.your.plugins</pluginGroup>
    -->
  </pluginGroups>

  <!-- proxies
   | This is a list of proxies which can be used on this machine to connect to the network.
   | Unless otherwise specified (by system property or command-line switch), the first proxy
   | specification in this list marked as active will be used.
   |-->
  <proxies>
    <!-- proxy
     | Specification for one proxy, to be used in connecting to the network.
     |
    <proxy>
      <id>optional</id>
      <active>true</active>
      <protocol>http</protocol>
      <username>proxyuser</username>
      <password>proxypass</password>
      <host>proxy.host.net</host>
      <port>80</port>
      <nonProxyHosts>local.net|some.host.com</nonProxyHosts>
    </proxy>
    -->
  </proxies>

  <!-- servers
   | This is a list of authentication profiles, keyed by the server-id used within the system.
   | Authentication profiles can be used whenever maven must make a connection to a remote server.
   |-->
  <servers>
    <!-- server
     | Specifies the authentication information to use when connecting to a particular server, identified by
     | a unique name within the system (referred to by the 'id' attribute below).
     |
     | NOTE: You should either specify username/password OR privateKey/passphrase, since these pairings are
     |       used together.
     |
    <server>
      <id>deploymentRepo</id>
      <username>repouser</username>
      <password>repopwd</password>
    </server>
    -->

    <!-- Another sample, using keys to authenticate.
    <server>
      <id>siteServer</id>
      <privateKey>/path/to/private/key</privateKey>
      <passphrase>optional; leave empty if not used.</passphrase>
    </server>
    -->
    <server>
        <id>nexus-releases</id>
        <username>admin</username>
        <password>admin123</password>
    </server>
   
    <server>
        <id>nexus-snapshots</id>
        <username>admin</username>
        <password>admin123</password>
    </server>
   
    <server>
        <id>nexus-thirdparty</id>
        <username>admin</username>
        <password>admin123</password>
    </server>
  </servers>

  <!-- mirrors
   | This is a list of mirrors to be used in downloading artifacts from remote repositories.
   |
   | It works like this: a POM may declare a repository to use in resolving certain artifacts.
   | However, this repository may have problems with heavy traffic at times, so people have mirrored
   | it to several places.
   |
   | That repository definition will have a unique id, so we can create a mirror reference for that
   | repository, to be used as an alternate download site. The mirror site will be the preferred
   | server for that repository.
   |-->
  <mirrors>
    <!-- mirror
     | Specifies a repository mirror site to use instead of a given repository. The repository that
     | this mirror serves has an ID that matches the mirrorOf element of this mirror. IDs are used
     | for inheritance and direct lookup purposes, and must be unique across the set of mirrors.
     |
    <mirror>
      <id>mirrorId</id>
      <mirrorOf>repositoryId</mirrorOf>
      <name>Human Readable Name for this Mirror.</name>
      <url>http://my.repository.com/repo/path</url>
    </mirror>
     -->
     <!--
     <mirror>
      <id>alimaven</id>
      <mirrorOf>central</mirrorOf>
      <name>aliyun maven</name>
   <url>http://maven.aliyun.com/nexus/content/groups/public/</url>
    </mirror>
    -->
    <mirror>
      <id>nexus</id>
      <mirrorOf>*</mirrorOf>
      <name>nexus maven</name>
        <!--<url>http://xiaoshang.ydcfo.com:8081/repository/maven-public/</url>-->
        <url>http://192.168.1.105:8081/nexus/content/groups/public/</url>
    </mirror>
  </mirrors>

  <!-- profiles
   | This is a list of profiles which can be activated in a variety of ways, and which can modify
   | the build process. Profiles provided in the settings.xml are intended to provide local machine-
   | specific paths and repository locations which allow the build to work in the local environment.
   |
   | For example, if you have an integration testing plugin - like cactus - that needs to know where
   | your Tomcat instance is installed, you can provide a variable here such that the variable is
   | dereferenced during the build process to configure the cactus plugin.
   |
   | As noted above, profiles can be activated in a variety of ways. One way - the activeProfiles
   | section of this document (settings.xml) - will be discussed later. Another way essentially
   | relies on the detection of a system property, either matching a particular value for the property,
   | or merely testing its existence. Profiles can also be activated by JDK version prefix, where a
   | value of '1.4' might activate a profile when the build is executed on a JDK version of '1.4.2_07'.
   | Finally, the list of active profiles can be specified directly from the command line.
   |
   | NOTE: For profiles defined in the settings.xml, you are restricted to specifying only artifact
   |       repositories, plugin repositories, and free-form properties to be used as configuration
   |       variables for plugins in the POM.
   |
   |-->
  <profiles>
    <!-- profile
     | Specifies a set of introductions to the build process, to be activated using one or more of the
     | mechanisms described above. For inheritance purposes, and to activate profiles via <activatedProfiles/>
     | or the command line, profiles have to have an ID that is unique.
     |
     | An encouraged best practice for profile identification is to use a consistent naming convention
     | for profiles, such as 'env-dev', 'env-test', 'env-production', 'user-jdcasey', 'user-brett', etc.
     | This will make it more intuitive to understand what the set of introduced profiles is attempting
     | to accomplish, particularly when you only have a list of profile id's for debug.
     |
     | This profile example uses the JDK version to trigger activation, and provides a JDK-specific repo.
    <profile>
      <id>jdk-1.4</id>

      <activation>
        <jdk>1.4</jdk>
      </activation>

      <repositories>
        <repository>
          <id>jdk14</id>
          <name>Repository for JDK 1.4 builds</name>
          <url>http://www.myhost.com/maven/jdk14</url>
          <layout>default</layout>
          <snapshotPolicy>always</snapshotPolicy>
        </repository>
      </repositories>
    </profile>
    -->

    <!--
     | Here is another profile, activated by the system property 'target-env' with a value of 'dev',
     | which provides a specific path to the Tomcat instance. To use this, your plugin configuration
     | might hypothetically look like:
     |
     | ...
     | <plugin>
     |   <groupId>org.myco.myplugins</groupId>
     |   <artifactId>myplugin</artifactId>
     |
     |   <configuration>
     |     <tomcatLocation>${tomcatPath}</tomcatLocation>
     |   </configuration>
     | </plugin>
     | ...
     |
     | NOTE: If you just wanted to inject this configuration whenever someone set 'target-env' to
     |       anything, you could just leave off the <value/> inside the activation-property.
     |
    <profile>
      <id>env-dev</id>

      <activation>
        <property>
          <name>target-env</name>
          <value>dev</value>
        </property>
      </activation>

      <properties>
        <tomcatPath>/path/to/tomcat/instance</tomcatPath>
      </properties>
    </profile>
    -->
   
    <!--
    <profile>  
      <id>nexus</id>      
      <repositories>  
        <repository>  
          <id>central</id>  
           <url>http://central</url>  
            <releases>
                <enabled>true</enabled>
                <updatePolicy>always</updatePolicy>
            </releases>  
            <snapshots>
                <enabled>false</enabled>
                <updatePolicy>never</updatePolicy>
            </snapshots>  
        </repository>  
      </repositories>  
     <pluginRepositories>  
        <pluginRepository>  
          <id>central</id>  
           <url>http://central</url>   
            <releases>
                <enabled>true</enabled>
                <updatePolicy>always</updatePolicy>
            </releases>  
            <snapshots>
                <enabled>false</enabled>
                <updatePolicy>never</updatePolicy>
            </snapshots>  
        </pluginRepository>  
      </pluginRepositories>  
    </profile>
-->
   
  </profiles>

  <!-- activeProfiles
   | List of profiles that are active for all builds.
   |
  <activeProfiles>
    <activeProfile>alwaysActiveProfile</activeProfile>
    <activeProfile>anotherAlwaysActiveProfile</activeProfile>
  </activeProfiles>
  -->
  <!--
  <activeProfiles>  
     <activeProfile>nexus</activeProfile>  
    </activeProfiles>
   
    -->
</settings>
上传自定义jar包到私服
在需要上传的工程中的pom.xml文件中加入下面的配置
需要保证上面settings.xml中配置已经通过server标签配置了鉴权账号  这里repository的<id>nexus-releases</id>要 与上面setting.xml文件中server标签的id元素相匹配。
<distributionManagement>
    <repository>
        <id>nexus-releases</id>
        <name>Nexus Release Repository</name>
        <url>http://192.168.1.105:8081/nexus/content/repositories/releases/</url>
    </repository>
    <snapshotRepository>
        <id>nexus-snapshots</id>
        <name>Nexus Snapshot Repository</name>
        <url>http://192.168.1.105:8081/nexus/content/repositories/snapshots/</url>
    </snapshotRepository>
</distributionManagement>
上传命令:
mvn deploy:deploy-file -DgroupId=groupId -DartifactId=artifactId -Dversion=version -Dfile=本地jar包路径 -DrepositoryId=releases/snapshots -Durl=仓库地址
举例:上传jmxri-1.2.1.jar,本地存放在D盘
mvn deploy:deploy-file -DgroupId=com.sun.jmx –DartifactId=jmxri -Dversion=1.2.1 -Dfile=d:/jmxri-1.2.1.jar -DrepositoryId=releases -Durl=http://ip/nexus/content/repositories/releases
依赖包的管理
问题引入:
  Web项目开发的时候往往都会将所有的开发程序打包成一个*.war文件。那么在这个war文件里面就会存在有lib目录保存所有的第三方程序开发包文件
  对于一些重要的开发包,那就需要将其进行保存,如果不需要的开发包,那么就不希望其输出到lib之中。
  列如:Junit 往往只做测试使用,而实际项目发布的时候,这个开发包就没有任何的用处,所以就不希望其可以自动的输出到war文件中去
解决办法:
  <scope>****</scope> 就属于开发包的作用域,junit属于测试环境下的 所以使用test作用域。
  如果作用域没有任何配置指的就是compile,输出到lib文件的只有compile范围的开发包
  如果scope设为 provided。说明该程序包的实现将依赖我们的容器完成,如servlet开发包本身都会由Tomcat容器提供。
  所以这个包只在编译项目的时候有效,那么本质上也没有必要保存到lib目录下。此范围只对当前模块有效,不能依赖传递
依赖包的排除
  当我们的A项目去依赖B包的时候,发现B包又依赖C包,但是我们配置之中又发现项目A也要去引用C依赖包。这样一来 就有可能造成包的冲突,
  所以就不希望B字段依赖的C包加入到项目的编译里面来,这样就需要一个包的排除处理。
实现包的排除
<dependency>
<exclusions>
     <exclusion>
             <groupId>****</groupId>
            <artifactId>abc</artifactId>
     </exclusion>
</exclusions>
</dependency>
这样我们的abc jar包就不会通过依赖发布到war文件
继承关系
通过配置<parent></parent>相关的属性以及配置的插件(JDK插件,tomcat插件等)和属性都会自动通过父项目继承而来
  <parent>    <groupId>****</groupId>    <artifactId>*</artifactId>    <version>***</version>  </parent>
对于子项目而言,也需要继续导入开发包,与之前最大的区别是不需要处理版本号。



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